English to Kashmiri & Kashmiri to English Dictionary
Kashmiri Dictionary is a bilingual dictionary that translates words from English to Kashmiri or Kashmiri to English. It is a part of Language Networking, a social and educational initiative by KHANDBAHALE.COM, and is free and open to all for non-commercial use. It is recognised as an accurate and authentic language resource by scholars and experts and can also be downloaded as software and apps for multiple devices for online and offline use.
About the Kashmiri Language
Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کأشُر Kashur) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in Jammu and Kashmir. There are approximately 5,527,698 speakers throughout India, according to the Census of 2001. Most of the 105,000 speakers in Pakistan are émigrés from the Kashmir Valley after the partition of India. They include a few speakers residing in border villages in Neelum District. Kashmiri (कॉशुर, کأشُر Kashur) is a language from the Dardic sub-group of the Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in Jammu and Kashmir. There are approximately 5,527,698 speakers throughout India, according to the Census of 2001. Most of the 105,000 speakers in Pakistan are émigrés from the Kashmir Valley after the partition of India. They include a few speakers residing in border villages in Neelum District. Kashmiri has a rich literary tradition dating back several centuries, with famous poets and writers such as Lal Ded, Habba Khatun, and Ghulam Ahmad Mehjoor. The language has its own script called Sharda script which is a variant of the Brahmi script. In terms of grammar, Kashmiri is an inflected language, meaning that the grammatical function of a word is indicated by its inflection, rather than by word order. It has a complex system of case markers and verb conjugations, as well as a rich system of particles that indicate various grammatical functions. Kashmiri is known for its rich vocabulary, with a significant number of loanwords from Persian and Arabic, as well as from Sanskrit and other languages. However, the language has faced challenges in recent years. Due to the ongoing political situation in the region, the language has been facing a decline in its usage and promotion, and there are concerns about its future. Many Kashmiri language movements have been formed to protect and promote the language. Kashmiri is an important language in the region of Jammu and Kashmir, with a rich literary and cultural tradition. Its continued use and promotion are important for preserving the cultural heritage of the region, and for ensuring the linguistic rights of the Kashmiri-speaking people.
Spoken In : Jammu and Kashmir (India), Azad Jammu and Kashmir (Pakistan)
Native Speakers: 5.6 million (2001)
Language family: Indo-European > Indo-Iranian > Indo-Aryan > Dardic > Kashmiri
Writing system: Perso-Arabic script, Devanagari script, Sharada script
Official language in: India
Language codes: ks (ISO 639-1), kas (ISO 639-2, ISO 639-3)
The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is a part of the Sixth Schedule in the constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Kashmiri has thousands of loan words (mainly from Persian and Arabic) due to the arrival of Islam in the Valley, however, it remains basically an Indo-Aryan language close to Rigvedic Sanskrit. There is a minor difference between the Kashmiri spoken by a Hindu and a Muslim.
- "A Grammar of Kashmiri" by Omkar N. Koul - This comprehensive grammar book provides a detailed analysis of the phonology, morphology, and syntax of Kashmiri. It is an essential resource for students and scholars of Kashmiri language and linguistics.
- "Kashmiri: An Essential Grammar" by Omkar N. Koul - This book is a concise and user-friendly guide to the grammar of Kashmiri. It covers all the key grammatical structures of the language and is perfect for those who are looking for a quick and easy reference.
- "A History of Kashmiri Literature" by Fida Hussain - This book provides a detailed and informative overview of the history of Kashmiri literature, from its ancient roots to the present day. It covers the works of major poets and writers, as well as the cultural and historical context in which they were produced.
- "Kashmiri for Beginners" by Farooq Ahmad - This book is a great resource for those who are new to Kashmiri language. It covers everything from basic grammar and vocabulary to reading and writing, and includes exercises and practice materials to help learners improve their skills.
- "Kashmiri-English Dictionary" by M.L. Koul and B.N. Kachru - This comprehensive dictionary is a useful resource for anyone learning Kashmiri, with over 25,000 entries covering both Kashmiri-English and English-Kashmiri translations. It includes detailed explanations of grammar and usage, making it an essential tool for language learners.
- "Kashmiri Language in the Digital Age" by Farooq Ahmad - This book looks at the ways in which technology is impacting the use and promotion of the Kashmiri language. It covers topics such as social media, machine translation, and text-to-speech, and provides insights into the challenges and opportunities facing the Kashmiri language in the digital age.
- Government: National Portal of India : india.gov.in
- Government of Pakistan : www.pakistan.gov.pk
- Koshur: An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri : https://www.koshur.org/
- Wikipedia : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kashmiri
- Kashmiri font, and language information : https://www.kashmirilanguage.com/